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Dúirt an chomhdháil ‘Eisiamh sóisialta aon leithscéal as radacú’

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Úsáidimid do shíniú suas chun ábhar a sholáthar ar bhealaí ar thoiligh tú leo agus chun ár dtuiscint ortsa a fheabhsú. Is féidir leat díliostáil ag am ar bith.

461129350.0A conference in Preas Club An Bhruiséil was told that social exclusion should not be used to excuse young Muslim men and women becoming radicalized and using violence as a means of protest.

 The debate, 'Radicalisation and Jihadist Violence', heard that while discrimination and racism are factors, it is often people from "well-educated, middle class" backgrounds who become involved in Islamist terrorism.

Samir Amghar, a researcher at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, said: "This can seem contradictory and does not fit with the perceived theory but most of those involved are not from working class backgrounds."

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This should not be entirely surprising, he suggested, as other terrorist organisations, such as the Red Brigades, an Italian left-wing, terrorist organisation responsible for numerous violent incidents and murders in the 1970s, had intellectuals and middle class members among their ranks.

The discussion, organised by the European Foundation for Democracy, a leading  Brussels-based policy institute, focused on the "root causes" that drive young Muslim men, and women, to commit atrocities such as those seen in Paris recently which claimed the lives of 130 people.

The exchange of views, on Wednesday, was particularly timely with Brussels continuing to face a terrorist alert in the wake of the recent Paris attacks.

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Amghar, an expert on Islamic studies and a Muslim, told the packed meeting that one possible explanation for the ideology that can lead to terrorism is the current relative lack of opportunity in Europe for "Islamic discourse."

"Muslims," he said," do not feel they have the instruments to express political protest and as a result some choose to express themselves in a violent way."

Ideology was one of "many variables" underlying the apparent appeal of fighting a Jihad or holy war, Amghar told the event at Brussels Press Club.

One solution to the problem, he argued, would be to put in place counter radicalisation programmes that might demonstrate a "more moderate face of Islam" to those at risk of becoming radicalised.

There was "no immediate linkage" to be made between Muslim orthodoxy and Jihadism and even "hard core" Muslims condemn the actions of so-called Islamic State, responsible for the Paris attacks and downing of a Russian commercial airline.

But, even so, he said some apparently "moderate Muslims", such as the well-known Islamic preacher Yusuf Qaradawi, who has in the past called for Jews and homosexuals to be killed, had an “ambiguous” attitude to violence and who on the one hand condemns publicly some attacks conducted by Islamists (that is 9/11, Madrid, London) and on the other, calls Muslims from all over the world to fight against Bahsar Al Assad, joining jihadists in Syria  (2012).

Amghar also said the authorities, including law enforcement agencies, in Europe also had an important responsibility to ensure that peaceful protest was permitted.

He cited the example of the Innocence of Muslims, a controversial anti-Islamic film that sparked debate about freedom of speech and Internet censorship.

Muslims who had peacefully protested about the movie outside American embassies in France were arrested and this, he argued, is the type of response that may fuel radicalization.

Mohamed Louizi, an independent researcher and author on Islamism and another keynote speaker at the event, related his own experience of being a member of the Muslim Brotherhood , in Arabic al-Ikhwān al-Muslimūn, a religio-political organization founded in 1928 at Ismailia, Egypt by Ḥasan al-Banna.

Louizi, who is based in France, was a member for 15 years but had now left what he calls a "very secretive organization" and has been highly critical of its teachings, practices, structure and sources of financing.

He read lengthy excerpts from texts written by al-Banna but based on traditional Islamic doctrine which, Louizi pointed out, glorified self-immolation and martyrdom, which explicitly includes killing Christians and Jews.

"It tells Muslims to fight the infidels and for the cause of Allah or be condemned to Hell," he said.

He pointed out that such texts are currently being taught across France at mosques and "educational centres" run by the Muslim Brotherhood and was also the doctrine spread by the orthodox schools of Islam.

Louizi suggests that exposure to such teachings provides a fertile ground for recruitment to violence and terrorism and is another root cause of Islamic radicalization.

A person who even challenges such doctrine, he says, is considered to be an apostate, or someone whose beliefs have changed and who therefore no longer belongs to a religious or political group.

He drew on his own experience to highlight the sometimes "unforgiving" nature of such ideology, saying, "If, as a former member of Muslim Brotherhood, I did anything that would attack the structure of that organisation, such as expose their financing, it would seek to destroy me."

In the question and answer session, Louizi also spoke of intellectuals in Egypt who, said, had been prosecuted in court or were victims of extrajudicial killings for expressing liberal views on Islam.

"Islam as with all religions," he argued, "should be subject to criticism. You should not avoid it but, rather, encourage discussion about your faith. After all, there is no single Islam religion but different interpretations of it. The Muslim Brotherhood needs to realise that it is not the only legitimate voice for Muslims in the world."

There was also a worrying trend, he noted, for public debate on Islam and jihadist violence to be perceived as “Islamophobia” and for confusion to persist among the general population between Islam – the religion – and Islamism – the ideology.

"Again, this is wrong," he said.

Louizi, who is also a former member of Islamist groups in France and Morocco, said that in order to explore why they appear to be so attractive to some people, it was necessary to question the financing of Islamic State and other such groups.

He cited the example of French President Francois Hollande who met Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, the Emir of Qatar, shortly after the Paris attacks, supposedly to discuss the issue of radicalisation and Islamist terror.

"But," he said, "Qatar is one of the places that is providing the finance for IS."

Closing a lively two-hour discussion, EFD Executive Director Roberta Bonazzi said that she was surprised at the level of political and media debate in the wake of the Paris attacks. For more than ten years, she said, the Foundation has been bringing Muslim academics, scholars and grassroots activists from around Europe and the MENA region to meet officials and politicians in Brussels to discuss the ideology that can lead to radicalisation and ultimately to recruitment to terrorist organisations. Officials didn’t want to hear about that and the EU and national governments continue, still today, to support large, structured well-funded organisations that are linked to Islamist groups, she said. It is a scandal, she added.

She said: “This is not about Molenbeek, or about Brussels or about Belgium,” adding that Europe is facing structural problems on these issues in several other cities in France, The Netherlands, the UK, Sweden, Germany and Spain.

She added: "They share very similar problems as well as - failed - short-sighted and politically expedient policies, adopted either out of negligence and naiveté or as political expedients to win votes from within local Muslim communities. In the past 20 years we have seen a growing presence of organisations managed or inspired by radical preachers sent to Europe - including Belgium - from Qatar and Saudi Arabia in particular.

“The massive injection of funding, the lack of understanding of the Islamist ideology (as opposed to Islam the religion), the multi-layered networks active at community levels, combined with the aspiration for social peace of politicians and local administrators, are all elements that have contributed to the situation we are facing today,” she concluded.

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'Is féidir leis an Eoraip - agus is léir gur cheart - a bheith in ann agus toilteanach níos mó a dhéanamh léi féin' von der Leyen

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Rinne Uachtarán an Choimisiúin Eorpaigh Ursula von der Leyen machnamh ar an deireadh beacht le misean NATO san Afganastáin ina aitheasc ‘Stát an AE’ (SOTEU). Thug imeachtaí an tsamhraidh spreagadh nua don Aontas Cosanta Eorpach. 

Chuir Von der Leyen síos ar an scéal mar “cheisteanna an-bhuartha” a ardú do chomhghuaillithe NATO, lena iarmhairtí ar Afghanis, fir agus mná seirbhíse, chomh maith le hoibrithe taidhleoireachta agus cúnaimh. D’fhógair Von der Leyen go raibh sí ag súil go gcuirfí comhráiteas AE-NATO i láthair roimh dheireadh na bliana, ag rá go bhfuilimid “ag obair air seo faoi láthair le hArd-Rúnaí NATO, Jens Stoltenberg.

Aontas Eorpach um Chosaint

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Cháin go leor acu gur theip ar an AE a ghrúpaí catha a úsáid. D'ionsaigh Von der Leyen ceann na ceiste: "Is féidir leat na fórsaí is úire ar domhan a bheith agat - ach mura bhfuil tú sásta iad a úsáid riamh - cén úsáid a bhaintear astu?" Dúirt sí nach easpa cumais a bhí sa fhadhb, ach easpa toil pholaitiúil. 

Dúirt Von der Leyen go bhfuil an doiciméad Compás Straitéiseach atá le teacht, a thabharfar chun críche i mí na Samhna, ríthábhachtach don phlé seo: “Caithfimid cinneadh a dhéanamh ar conas is féidir linn na féidearthachtaí uile atá sa Chonradh a úsáid cheana féin. Sin é an fáth, faoi Uachtaránacht na Fraince, go gceannóidh an tUachtarán Macron agus mé Cruinniú Mullaigh ar chosaint na hEorpa. Tá sé thar am don Eoraip céim suas go dtí an chéad leibhéal eile. "

D'iarr Von der Leyen go ndéanfaí comhroinnt faisnéise níos mó chun feasacht staide níos fearr, faisnéis agus faisnéis a roinnt, chomh maith le gach seirbhís a tharraingt le chéile ó sholáthraithe cabhrach dóibh siúd a d'fhéadfadh a bheith i gceannas ar oiliúint póilíní. Ar an dara dul síos, d’iarr sí idir-inoibritheacht fheabhsaithe trí ardáin choitianta na hEorpa, ar gach rud ó scairdeanna trodaire go drones. Chaith sí amach an smaoineamh CBL a tharscaoileadh agus trealamh cosanta á fhorbairt agus arna tháirgeadh san AE á cheannach aici, ag áitiú go gcuideodh sé seo le hidir-inoibritheacht agus spleáchas a laghdú. Mar fhocal scoir, maidir le cibear, dúirt sí go raibh Beartas Eorpach um Chibear-Chosaint ag teastáil ón AE, lena n-áirítear reachtaíocht maidir le comhchaighdeáin faoin Acht Eorpach Cibear-Athléimneachta nua.

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Céard atáimid ag fanacht?

Ag labhairt dó tar éis óráid von der Leyen, dúirt cathaoirleach Pháirtí an Phobail Eorpaigh Manfred Weber FPE: “Cuirim fáilte iomlán roimh na tionscnaimh ón gcomhairle cosanta i Liúibleána. Ach cad atáimid ag fanacht? Tugann Conradh Liospóin gach rogha dúinn, mar sin déanaimis é agus déanaimis é anois. " Dúirt sé go ndearna an tUachtarán Biden soiléir cheana nach raibh na SA ag iarraidh a bheith mar phóilín an domhain a thuilleadh agus dúirt sé go raibh an tSín agus an Rúis ag fanacht leis an bhfolús a líonadh: “Dhúisíomar i ndomhan nach mbeidh ár leanaí ag iarraidh chun cónaí."

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9 / 11

20 bliain ó 9/11: Ráiteas ón Ardionadaí / Leas-Uachtarán Josep Borrell

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An 11 Meán Fómhair 2001, mharaigh an t-ionsaí ba mharfaí i stair na SA beagnach 3,000 duine agus gortaíodh níos mó ná 6,000 nuair a bhuail eitiltí paisinéirí a ndearnadh fuadach orthu isteach san Ionad Trádála Domhanda, sa Pheinteagán agus isteach i réimse i gContae Somerset, Pennsylvania.

Tugaimid ómós do chuimhne na ndaoine a chaill a mbeatha ar an lá seo, 20 bliain ó shin. Ní dhéantar dearmad ar íospartaigh na sceimhlitheoireachta. Cuirim comhbhrón ó chroí in iúl do mhuintir Mheiriceá, go háirithe iad siúd a chaill a ngaolta sna hionsaithe. Is ionsaithe inár gcoinne go léir ionsaithe sceimhlitheoireachta.

Ba é 9/11 cas na staire. D'athraigh sé an clár oibre polaitiúil domhanda go bunúsach - den chéad uair riamh, d'áitigh NATO Airteagal 5, ag ligean dá chomhaltaí freagairt le chéile i bhféinchosaint, agus sheol sé an cogadh i gcoinne na hAfganastáine.

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20 bliain ina dhiaidh sin, fanann grúpaí sceimhlitheoireachta ar nós Al Qaida agus Da’esh gníomhach agus bríomhar i go leor áiteanna ar fud an domhain, mar shampla sa tSaiheil, sa Mheánoirthear agus san Afganastáin. Chuir a n-ionsaithe na mílte íospartach ar fud an domhain, pian ollmhór agus fulaingt. Déanann siad iarracht beatha a scriosadh, damáiste a dhéanamh do phobail agus ár slí beatha a athrú. Ag iarraidh tíortha ina n-iomláine a dhíchobhsú, déanann siad creach go háirithe ar shochaithe leochaileacha, ach freisin ar dhaonlathais an Iarthair agus na luachanna a seasann muid dóibh. Meabhraíonn siad dúinn gur bagairt í an sceimhlitheoireacht a mbímid ag maireachtáil léi gach lá.

Anois, mar sin, táimid meáite ar an sceimhlitheoireacht a throid i ngach foirm, áit ar bith. Tá meas, buíochas agus buíochas againn dóibh siúd atá i mbaol a mbeatha chun sinn a chosaint ar an mbagairt seo agus orthu siúd a fhreagraíonn i ndiaidh ionsaithe.

Mhúin ár n-eispéireas frithsceimhlitheoireachta dúinn nach bhfuil freagraí furasta, nó socruithe gasta ann. Ní chuideoidh freagairt do sceimhlitheoireacht agus antoisceachas foréigneach le fórsa agus le míleata ach croíthe agus intinn a bhuachan. Dá bhrí sin, tá cur chuige comhtháite glactha ag an AE, ag dul i ngleic le bunchúiseanna antoisceachais fhoréignigh, ag gearradh foinsí maoinithe sceimhlitheoirí agus ag srianadh ábhar sceimhlitheoireachta ar líne. Tugtar sainordú do chúig mhisean slándála agus cosanta AE ar fud an domhain cur leis an gcomhrac i gcoinne na sceimhlitheoireachta. Déanaimid tiomantas inár n-iarrachtaí go léir beatha neamhchiontach, ár saoránaigh agus ár luachanna a chosaint, chomh maith le cearta an duine agus an dlí idirnáisiúnta a chosaint.

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Cuireann na himeachtaí san Afganastáin le déanaí oibleagáid orainn athmhachnamh a dhéanamh ar ár gcur chuige, ag obair lenár gcomhpháirtithe straitéiseacha, mar na Stáit Aontaithe agus trí iarrachtaí iltaobhacha, lena n-áirítear leis na Náisiúin Aontaithe, an Comhghuaillíocht Dhomhanda chun Defeat Da'esh agus an Fóram Frithsceimhlitheoireachta Domhanda (GCTF) ).

Ar an lá seo, níor cheart dúinn dearmad a dhéanamh gurb é an t-aon bhealach chun tosaigh ná seasamh aontaithe agus daingean i gcoinne gach duine a dhéanann iarracht ár sochaithe a mhilleadh agus a roinnt. Leanfaidh an AE ag obair i gcomhar leis na Stáit Aontaithe agus a chomhpháirtithe uile chun an domhan seo a dhéanamh níos sábháilte.

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oideachas

Ráiteas ón gCoimisinéir Bainistíochta Géarchéime Janez Lenarčič ar an Lá Idirnáisiúnta chun Oideachas a Chosaint ó Ionsaí

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Ar ócáid ​​an Lá Idirnáisiúnta chun Oideachas a Chosaint ó Ionsaí (9 Meán Fómhair), athdhearbhaíonn an AE a thiomantas chun ceart gach linbh fás i dtimpeallacht shábháilte a chur chun cinn agus a chosaint, rochtain a bheith aige ar oideachas ardchaighdeáin, agus saol níos fearr agus níos mó a thógáil. todhchaí síochánta, a deir Janez Lenarčič (sa phictiúr).

Bíonn tionchar tubaisteach ag ionsaithe ar scoileanna, ar mhic léinn agus ar mhúinteoirí ar rochtain ar oideachas, ar chórais oideachais agus ar fhorbairt na sochaí. Faraor, tá a minicíocht ag méadú ar ráta scanrúil. Tá sé seo ró-shoiléir ó na forbairtí a rinneadh le déanaí san Afganastáin, agus na géarchéimeanna san Aetóip, Sead, réigiún Sahel na hAfraice, sa tSiria, in Éimin nó i Maenmar, i measc go leor eile. D'aithin an Comhghuaillíocht Dhomhanda chun Oideachas a Chosaint ó Ionsaí níos mó ná 2,400 ionsaí ar áiseanna oideachais, mic léinn agus oideoirí in 2020, méadú 33 faoin gcéad ó 2019.

Is éard atá in ionsaithe ar oideachas sáruithe ar an Dlí Daonnúil Idirnáisiúnta freisin, an tacar rialacha atá ag iarraidh éifeachtaí coinbhleachta armtha a theorannú. Tá sáruithe den sórt sin ag iolrú, agus is annamh a thugtar cuntas ar a gcuid déantóirí. Is é an dearcadh seo, táimid ag cur comhlíonadh an Dlí Daonnúil Idirnáisiúnta go comhsheasmhach i gcroílár ghníomh seachtrach an AE. Mar cheann de na deontóirí daonnúla is mó, leanfaidh an AE dá réir ag cur chun cinn agus ag tacú le meas domhanda ar an Dlí Daonnúil Idirnáisiúnta, ag stáit agus ag grúpaí armtha neamhstáit le linn coinbhleachta armtha.

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Seachas scrios na n-áiseanna, bíonn foghlaim agus teagasc ar fionraí go fadtéarmach mar thoradh ar ionsaithe ar oideachas, méadaíonn siad an baol go bhfágfaidh scoileanna, go mbeidh saothair éigeantach agus earcaíocht ag grúpaí armtha agus fórsaí mar thoradh air. Treisíonn dúnadh scoileanna nochtadh do gach cineál foréigin, lena n-áirítear foréigean gnéasach agus inscne-bhunaithe nó pósadh luath agus éigeantach, ar tháinig méadú suntasach ar a leibhéil le linn na paindéime COVID-19.

Nocht an paindéim COVID-19 leochaileacht an oideachais ar fud an domhain agus chuir sé leis. Anois, níos mó ná riamh, caithfimid an cur isteach ar chur isteach ar oideachas a íoslaghdú, agus a chinntiú gur féidir le leanaí foghlaim i sábháilteacht agus i gcosaint.

Cuid dhílis dár n-iarrachtaí an ceart chun oideachais do gach cailín agus buachaill a chosaint agus a chur chun cinn, lena n-áirítear tuilleadh rannpháirtíochta ar an Dearbhú um Scoileanna Sábháilte.

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Teastaíonn cur chuige comhordaithe agus idir-earnála chun freagairt d’ionsaithe ar scoileanna agus chun iad a chosc, tacú le gnéithe cosanta den oideachas agus mic léinn agus múinteoirí a chosaint.

Trí thionscadail san Oideachas in Éigeandálaí atá maoinithe ag an AE, cabhraímid leis na rioscaí a bhaineann le coinbhleacht armtha a laghdú agus a mhaolú.

Tá an AE fós ar thús cadhnaíochta maidir le tacú le hoideachas i gcásanna éigeandála, ag tiomnú 10% dá bhuiséad cúnaimh dhaonnúil chun tacú le rochtain, cáilíocht agus cosaint an oideachais.

Tuilleadh eolais

Bileog Fíricí - Oideachas in Éigeandálaí

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